The rallying cry is, “no taxation without representation.” For ten years, the American colonists have protested the taxes levied by the British crown. The protests are sometimes eloquent and sometimes violent. No matter the method, the Americans have no voice in the British government. Most colonists are not yet ready to break away, yet they are determined to defend their rights to assembly, free speech, trial by jury, taxation by their own representatives, and to bear arms.
The controversy explodes on that April morning. Two British companies form a line of battle on the Lexington Green. A British officer orders the militia to disperse. Most of the men began to scatter, but a few stubbornly stand their ground. A moment later, a shot rings out, who fired that first shot heard around the world may never be known. The British then unleash a full volley into the militia. When the smoke clears, eight Americans lay dead, and another nine are wounded.
In search of a rumored stockpile of American weapons, the British advance to Concord. Word of the movement spreads among the American Patriots. At Concord, the British find only remnants of the Patriot stockpile. The real weapons are in the hands of the militia. Three hundred Americans attack the British column near the Concord River. The British withdrawal. The Americans pursue, and it devolves into a running battle.
More militiamen, sometimes called Minutemen, arrive using country paths to ambush their exhausted foes. British soldiers are killed or wounded continuously. Most run out of ammunition. Some consider surrendering. The British limp back into Boston having lost nearly 300 men. Almost miraculously, the American Patriots win their first battle, but the revolution has only just begun.
Within weeks, Boston is surrounded by an army of New England militia. As news of the first victory spreads, other Americans take action. In May, a group of men who call themselves the Green Mountain Boys, seize Fort Ticonderoga in upstate New York. In June, the British attack an American position near Boston, a rise known to the locals as Bunker Hill. As a red coat battle lines approach, an American commander tells his men, “not to fire until you see the whites of their eyes.”
The British are slaughtered. Although the British capture the hill, American morale rises as British morale plummets. Despite these early successes, American leaders know that they will need more than enthusiastic militia to win the conflict. The Continental Congress in session in Philadelphia, creates the Continental Army and appoints George Washington, a member of the Virginia delegation, to lead it.
Washington rushes to join the Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts telling Congress that he will need heavy artillery to drive the British out of Boston. In January, he orders Thomas Paine’s pamphlet, Common Sense, which advocates independence from Great Britain, to be read aloud to his soldiers in order to strengthen their resolve for the cause. Washington is aided by 25-year-old Henry Knox, who spends the winter removing cannons from Fort Ticonderoga and bringing them to Boston. Despite having to sled across frozen rivers and scale snowy mountains, Knox doesn’t lose a single gun.
By March of 1776, the American artillery is in place. Unwilling to suffer a bombardment or risk another attack, the British evacuate the city. Washington watches as the fleet sails away. He knows the enemy will soon return in even greater numbers. The question is where?
That Patriots face enormous challenges. The British empire wields incredible power. To win the revolution the Americans will need foreign support. In early 1776, France begins to secretly send weapons to the colonists. But before the French will do more, the Americans need to demonstrate their determination. On July 4, 1776, congressional delegates sign the Declaration of Independence, signaling to France that the United States of America is committed to victory and capable of achieving it. The war for independence has officially begun.
Washington moves the Continental Army from Boston to New York anticipating a British attack. By the end of June, 19,000 Patriots have joined him. And then the British return. One hundred and thirty ships carrying more than 20,000 soldiers sail into New York harbor. One amazed American exclaims that “all of London is afloat.”
August 22, the British land on Long Island sweeping aside the American defenders at the battle or Brooklyn. Washington skillfully retreats across Manhattan to Harlem Heights. In September the British land on lower Manhattan and capture the city then dislodge the Americans from the defenses of Harlem Heights. Washington retreats again. Part of the Army withdraws North to White Plains, while another occupies a strong position astride the Hudson at Forts Washington and Lee. William Howe, the British commander defeats Washington in the battle of White Plains on October 28th.
In November, he decides to remove the threat to his rear at Forts Washington and Lee. The battle of Fort Washington is a disaster. Three thousand Americans are overwhelmed and captured by the British assault. Four days later, the British crossed the Hudson and capture Fort Lee.
Washington’s army is reduced to but a few thousand men. With morale low and enlistment set to expire, he retreats across New Jersey into Pennsylvania. All that is stopping the British is the Delaware River and the coming winter. Convinced the rebels are all but defeated, the British spread out in numerous outposts throughout New Jersey. Washington must rekindle his army’s confidence. He tells his men that if you will consent to stay only one month longer, you will render that service to the cause of liberty and to your country, which you probably never can do under any other circumstances. Thomas Paine writes a second pamphlet, The American Crisis, which circulates around campfires and steals the resolve of the Patriots.
On Christmas night, 1776, Washington makes good on his promise. He moves his forces across the ice-choked Delaware River. It is a desperate and dangerous maneuver, but it works. His men gather on the opposite bank, and Washington launches a surprise attack on Trenton New Jersey.
The battle of Trenton is a storing American victory. Over 1,000 Hessians are captured along with six cannons, and enough supplies to outfit several American brigades. Seven days later, Washington presses his advantage, outmaneuvering the main British army and striking the garrison at Princeton. He wins another victory and captures nearly 200 British regulars. With his army rejuvenated, Washington marches to Morristown and settles in for the rest of the winter. There was almost constant skirmishes between Patriots and British foraging parties, forcing the New York City British-controlled garrison to rely on supplies bought by sea.
In the spring of 1777, the British devise a plan to isolate New England from the other American colonies. Three columns are ordered to converge on Albany, New York. One column is stopped at Fort Stanwix. One disregards the plan and instead moves toward Philadelphia, defeating an American force at the Battle of Brandywine and capturing the American Capital. Washington attempts to recapture this city, but is defeated at the Battle of Germantown.
Afterward, he moves his army to Valley Forge for the winter. The third British column meets heavy resistance from partisan fighters, giving the Americans time to assemble a large force near Saratoga. The fighting at Saratoga rages from September to October. Victory sways in the balance. Finally, the Americans surround the British army and force them to surrender.
The Continental Army suffers through a brutal winter at Valley Forge but holds together. Discipline actually improves due to the training regimen implemented by Baron von Steuben, a European officer who lends expertise to the cause. It is one of the war’s greatest displays of American determination. In the wake of the American victory at Saratoga, France signs an alliance with the United States and declares war on Britain.
Threatened by the French fleet, the British abandon Philadelphia. Washington pursues them across New Jersey. On June 28, Washington attacks a British rear guard at Monmouth, New Jersey. Although the battle is inconclusive, the winter training at Valley Forge has paid off. The Continentals had stood firm against British regulars who continue their movement to New York.
Throughout 1778, Washington maintains pressure on New York City. The countryside between the armies becomes a no man’s land of spies, forging parties, and skirmishes. Unable to make headway in the Northeast, British strategists shift their focus to the southern colonies, where a guerrilla war had raged since 1775. They’re banking on the support of Southern loyalists. In December, the British establish a foothold by capturing Savannah, Georgia. Months later, French troops join the Americans in an attempt to recapture Savannah, but the allies suffered severe losses and are unable to retake the city.
The Southern offensive continues into 1780. On May 12, a British army captures Charleston, South Carolina, along with more than 5,000 American soldiers and nearly the entire American force in the South. American reinforcements rushed to the Carolinas, but they fare little better. In August, another American army is crushed at the Battle of Camden. The countryside is still engulfed in a vicious partisan war. Neighbors take up arms against each other. The British troops burn homes and farms in their search for Patriots. They harden the revolutionary resolve of the Southern people.
In October, a force of more than 1,000 British loyalists is annihilated at the Battle of Kings Mountain. Washington sends more men to the south where they unite with Patriot militia fighters. Daniel Morgan leads the Americans to a major victory at Cowpens. But years of campaigning forced him to retire. Nathaniel Greene takes over.
In a grueling campaign in early 1781, he grinds down the British forces during a series of strategic retreats toward the Dan River. Greene is able to keep one step ahead of the British. He crosses on February 14, and the British without boats, are unable to pursue, the race is over. After a brief rest, Greene, now reinforced, re-crosses the dam.
On March 15, at Guilford Courthouse, Greene finally faces the British, fighting them to a bloody standstill.
After Guilford, Cornwallis withdraws his battered and exhausted army toward Wilmington. Soon after, he marches north to Virginia, hoping to stop the flow of men and supplies into the southern colonies. With Cornwallis gone, Greene swiftly re-enters the Carolinas. At Utah Springs, though a draw, Greene inflicts enough casualties to compel a British withdraw to Charleston, where Greene pins them for the rest of the war.
Thwarted in the north and in the south, British strategists now try to attack the center. Cornwallis marches into Virginia and chases a continental force before marching his weary army to Yorktown in July 1781, where he expects reinforcements by sea. On September 5, the British and French fleets battle each other off the Virginia Capes. The French are victorious, and Cornwallis is cut off.
A combined American and French force marches south and lays siege to the British on September 26. On October 14, American defense units storm two British [INAUDIBLE]. Cornwallis realizes there will be no reinforcements, no escape. He surrenders. More than 8,000 soldiers about one-fourth of all British troops in the United States are taken prisoner.
News of Yorktown reaches London in late November 1781. In February 1782, the British parliament adopts a resolution against further prosecution of offensive warfare on the continent of North America. The final treaty of peace is signed in September 1783.
After eight years of war, the longest war ever fought in North America. The United States win their independence. The American Revolution began the most important experiment the world has ever witnessed. Can people govern themselves? Can they treat each other as equals? Can liberty produce power? So far through many rigorous tests, America has answered– yes.